Normal Anatomy of the Hip joint
The hip joint is the largest weight-bearing joint in the human body. It is also referred to as a ball and socket joint and is surrounded by muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The thigh bone or femur and the pelvis join to form the hip joint.
Femoro Acetabular Impingement (FAI)
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition where there is impingement betwwen the neck of the femur and the rim of the socket. The femoral head/neck and acetabulum rub against each other creating damage and pain to the hip joint with hip flexion.
A Hip fracture is a break that occurs near the hip in the upper part of the femur or thigh bone. The thigh bone has two bony processes on the upper part - the greater and lesser trochanters. Hip fractures can occur in the femoral neck, in the area between the greater and lesser trochanter or below the lesser trochanter.
Avascular necrosis, also called osteonecrosis is a condition in which bone death occurs because of inadequate blood supply to it. Lack of blood flow may occur when there is a fracture ofafter the bone or a joint dislocation that may damage nearby blood vessels. Chronic use of high doses of steroid medications and heavy alcohol consumption are the two main risk factors of avascular necrosis.
Osteoarthritis of the hip
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative (wear and tear) joint disease is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease effects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (articular cartilage). In a person with osteoarthritis, the cartilage becomes damaged and worn out causing pain, swelling, stiffness and restricted movement in the affected joint.
Inflammatory arthritis of the hip
Inflammation of the joints is referred to as arthritis. The inflammation arises when the smooth covering (cartilage) at the end surfaces of the bones wears away - osteoarthritis. In other cases, the inflammation is caused when the lining of the joint becomes inflamed as part of an underlying systemic disease.